4th International Fermi Symposium Proceedings

This table provides an interactive window for accessing information from the 4th International Fermi Symposium Proceedings Database. Click any column header to sort the table on that column. Click the header again to reverse the sort order. Cells with blue text are links you can click to view related information or download related files. See the Overview section below for more information about the interactive proceedings table. See the Preface and Acknowledgements sections for a review of the symposium. For more information about the symposium, see the NASA-Goddard symposium website and the Stanford-GLAST symposium website.
Date Time Category Type Authors Title / Abstract Slides Videos arXiv# Page#
31-10-2012 16:00 Inst.& Analysis poster Bregeon, Johan Fermi-LAT data reprocessed with updated calibration constants 1304.5456 Pg# 3
29-10-2012 16:00 Inst.& Analysis poster Baldini, Luca Pass 8--Toward the Full Realization of the Fermi-LAT Scientific Potential 1303.3514 Pg# 8
29-10-2012 16:00 Inst.& Analysis poster Razzano, Massimiliano Simulating the Fermi sky: new results after 4 years in orbit 1303.1855 Pg# 14
31-10-2012 16:00 Inst.& Analysis poster Ciprini, Stefano Monitoring the Gamma-ray Sky through 4.5 Years of Fermi LAT Flare Advocate Service 1303.4054 Pg# 17
29-10-2012 16:00 Inst.& Analysis poster Corbet, Robin Looking for Stars and Finding the Moon: Effects of Lunar Gamma-ray Emission on Fermi LAT Light Curves 1302.5141 Pg# 21
30-10-2012 15:15 Inst.& Analysis oral Huppenkothen, Daniela New Methods for Timing Analysis of Transient Events, Applied to Fermi/GBM Magnetar Bursts 1303.1370 Pg# 26
29-10-2012 16:00 Inst.& Analysis poster Scargle, Jeffrey The Bayesian Blocks Algorithm 1304.2818 Pg# 32
29-10-2012 16:00 Inst.& Analysis poster Vercellone, Stefano The ASTRI Project: prototype status and future plans for a Cherenkov dual-mirror small-telescope array 1303.2024 Pg# 34
29-10-2012 16:00 Inst.& Analysis poster Cominsky, Lynn Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope 1303.0042 Pg# 40
29-10-2012 11:00 Solar System oral Omodei, Nicola Fermi-LAT Observation of Impulsive Solar Flares PDF MOV 1304.0798 Pg# 47
30-10-2012 14:30 Pulsars oral Hirotani, Kouichi Luminosity Evolution of Rotation-powered Gamma-ray Pulsars PDF 1303.3404 Pg# 57
29-10-2012 16:00 Pulsars poster McCann, Andrew Observations of the Crab Pulsar with VERITAS 1303.0275 Pg# 63
29-10-2012 16:00 Pulsars poster Wang, Yu Radiation Mechanism of the Soft Gamma-ray Pulsar PSR B1509-58 1303.0469 Pg# 68
30-10-2012 09:15 SNR & PWNe oral Caprioli, Damiano From Enrico Fermi to Fermi-LAT: watching particle acceleration in supernova remnants 1303.2326 Pg# 75
29-10-2012 16:00 SNR & PWNe poster Pivato, Giovanna Fermi LAT gamma-ray observations of the supernova remnant HB21 1303.2091 Pg# 81
30-10-2012 16:15 SNR & PWNe oral Striani, Edoardo The Surprising Crab Nebula PDF 1303.2576 Pg# 87
30-10-2012 16:00 Other Galactic poster Jenke, Peter Three years of Fermi GBM Earth Occultation Monitoring: More Observations of Hard X-ray/Soft Gamma-Ray Sources 1304.1825 Pg# 95
29-10-2012 16:00 Other Galactic poster Shrader, Chris A Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from Variable or Transient Galactic Radio Sources 1303.1053 Pg# 101
30-10-2012 10:30 Other Galactic oral Cheung, C Fermi Discovers a New Population of Gamma-ray Novae 1304.3475 Pg# 106
29-10-2012 16:00 Other Galactic poster Hill, Adam The discovery of gamma-ray emission from Nova Sco 2012: An analysis using reprocessed Pass7 data 1304.2427 Pg# 112
29-10-2012 16:00 Other Galactic poster McSwain, M. Virginia Multiwavelength Observations of Gamma-ray Binary Candidates 1303.2018 Pg# 117
29-10-2012 16:00 Other Galactic poster Mori, Masaki Fermi-LAT study of two gamma-ray binaries, HESS J0631+057 and AGL J2241+4454 1303.1606 Pg# 121
29-10-2012 16:00 Other Galactic poster Sushch, Iurii VHE Emission from PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 around 2010/2011 Periastron Passage observed with H.E.S.S 1303.1316 Pg# 124
29-10-2012 16:00 Other Galactic poster Hill, Adam Hunting for GeV emission from the gamma-ray binary HESS J0632+057 1304.2308 Pg# 131
29-10-2012 16:00 Other Galactic poster Zhang, Yuan Earth Occultation Imaging Applied to BATSE -- Application to a Combined BATSE-GBM Survey of the Hard X-Ray Sky 1303.2166 Pg# 135
30-10-2012 17:15 Other Galactic oral Piano, Giovanni Transient Gamma-ray Emission from Cygnus X-3 Detected by AGILE: Leptonic and Hadronic Emission Models PDF 1303.1846 Pg# 140
29-10-2012 16:00 Other Galactic poster Weinstein, Amanda VERITAS Observations of the Vicinity of the Cygnus Cocoon 1303.2271 Pg# 146
29-10-2012 16:00 Other Galactic poster Oya, Igor Discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1641-463 1303.0979 Pg# 150
31-10-2012 14:30 Diffuse Emission oral Hayashi, Katsuhiro Fermi LAT Study of the Cosmic-rays and the Interstellar Medium in Nearby Molecular Clouds PDF 1303.1887 Pg# 157
01-11-2012 11:30 Diffuse Emission oral Dermer, Charles On the Physics Connecting Cosmic Rays and Gamma Rays: Towards Determining the Interstellar Cosmic Ray Spectrum PDF 1303.6482 Pg# 162
29-10-2012 16:00 Diffuse Emission poster de Palma, Francesco A Method for Exploring Systematics Due to Galactic Interstellar Emission Modeling: Application to the Fermi LAT SNR Catalog 1304.1395 Pg# 172
29-10-2012 16:00 Diffuse Emission poster Biagi, Simone Search for a neutrino emission from the Fermi Bubbles with the ANTARES telescope 1303.2015 Pg# 178
02-11-2012 09:15 Dark Matter & New Physics oral Zaharijas, Gabrijela Constraints on the Galactic Dark Matter signal from the Fermi-LAT measurement of the diffuse gamma-ray emission PDF 1304.2547 Pg# 185
01-11-2012 16:00 Dark Matter & New Physics poster Gomez-Vargas, German Dark Matter implications of Fermi-LAT measurement of anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background 1303.2154 Pg# 191
30-10-2012 16:45 Dark Matter & New Physics oral Bloom, Elliott Search of the Earth Limb Fermi Data and Non-Galactic Center Region Fermi Data for Signs of Narrow Lines 1303.2733 Pg# 197
02-11-2012 09:30 Dark Matter & New Physics oral Weniger, Christoph Gamma-ray lines in the Fermi-LAT data? PDF 1303.1798 Pg# 203
31-10-2012 16:00 Dark Matter & New Physics poster Spengler, Gerrit Strategies for the Detection of Gamma Rays from Dark Matter Annihilation Towards the Galactic Center Region with the High Energy Stereoscopic System 1303.1089 Pg# 207
30-10-2012 17:00 Dark Matter & New Physics oral Geringer-Sameth, Alex The VERITAS Dark Matter Program 1303.1406 Pg# 213
31-10-2012 15:00 Active Galactic Nuclei oral Massaro, Francesco Unveiling the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources PDF 1303.3267 Pg# 221
01-11-2012 09:00 Active Galactic Nuclei oral Paneque, David The First Fermi-LAT Catalog of Sources Above 10 GeV PDF 1304.4153 Pg# 225
31-10-2012 08:30 Active Galactic Nuclei oral Finke, Justin Blazars in context in the Fermi Era PDF 1303.5095 Pg# 232
01-11-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Marscher, Alan Turbulent Extreme Multi-Zone Model for Multi-Waveband Variations of Blazars 1304.2064 Pg# 239
01-11-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Miller, Hugh The Variable Optical Polarization of J0948+0022 1304.1786 Pg# 245
01-11-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Aller, Margo Probing Jet Conditions with Multi-frequency, Centimeter-band Linear Polarization: PKS 0420-01 1302.6504 Pg# 248
31-10-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Max-Moerbeck, Walter OVRO 40 m Blazar Monitoring Program: Location of the gamma-ray emission region in blazars by the study of correlated variability at radio and gamma-rays 1303.2131 Pg# 252
31-10-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Agudo, Ivan Locating the Gamma-ray Flaring Emission of Blazar AO 0235+164 in the Jet at Parsec Scales Through Multi Spectral Range Monitoring 1303.2039 Pg# 256
31-10-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Patiño-Álvarez, Victor A Multiwavelength Cross-Correlation Variability Study of Fermi-LAT Blazars 1303.1898 Pg# 262
31-10-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Chatterjee, Ritaban The Contrasting Nature of Gamma-Ray/Optical Variability in the Blazar PKS 0208-512 During Successive Outbursts 1303.2095 Pg# 268
31-10-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Patiño-Álvarez, Victor Optical Spectrophotometric Monitoring of Fermi/LAT Bright Sources 1303.1893 Pg# 274
31-10-2012 17:15 Active Galactic Nuclei oral D'Abrusco, Raffaele A new method for the extraction of mid-infrared gamma-ray emitting candidate blazars PDF 1303.2656 Pg# 278
31-10-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Buson, Sara Flaring gamma-ray AGNs seen with the Fermi LAT 1303.2367 Pg# 284
31-10-2012 17:00 Active Galactic Nuclei oral D'Ammando, Filippo Four Years of Fermi LAT Observations of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies PDF 1303.3030 Pg# 288
29-10-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Orr, Matthew VERITAS Observations of High-Frequency-Peaked BL Lac Objects 1303.2142 Pg# 294
31-10-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Furniss, Amy VERITAS Results from Deep Exposure on the Distant FSRQ 4C +55.17 1303.1103 Pg# 299
31-10-2012 16:00 Active Galactic Nuclei poster Lindfors, Elina VHE gamma-ray emission from the FSRQs observed by the MAGIC telescopes 1303.2102 Pg# 302
01-11-2012 15:30 Active Galactic Nuclei oral Nemmen, Rodrigo Black Hole Jet Unification in the Fermi Era 1303.2278 Pg# 306
31-10-2012 11:00 Gamma Ray Bursts oral Guetta, Dafne Gamma-ray Burst Theory in the Fermi Era PDF 1303.1619 Pg# 313
31-10-2012 16:45 Gamma Ray Bursts oral Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi Radiation from accelerated particles in relativistic jets with shocks, shear-flow, and reconnection PDF


1303.2569 Pg# 319
31-10-2012 10:30 Gamma Ray Bursts oral Vianello, Giacomo Observations of Gamma-ray Bursts in the Fermi era 1304.5570 Pg# 325
29-10-2012 16:00 Gamma Ray Bursts poster Szecsi, Dorottya Background fitting of Fermi GBM observations 1303.3141 Pg# 329
01-11-2012 16:00 Gamma Ray Bursts poster Bagoly, Zsolt Dependence of the optical brightness on the gamma and X-ray properties of GRBs 1303.1920 Pg# 334
01-11-2012 16:00 Gamma Ray Bursts poster Zaborov, Dmitry The HAWC observatory as a GRB detector 1303.1564 Pg# 337
01-11-2012 16:00 Gamma Ray Bursts poster Blackburn, Lindy Techniques for targeted Fermi-GBM follow-up of gravitational-wave events 1303.2174 Pg# 340
31-10-2012 16:00 Other Extragalactic poster Leahy, Denis Double-humped Super-luminous Supernovae 1303.2047 Pg# 351
01-11-2012 16:00 Other Extragalactic poster Staszak, David Prompt VERITAS Observations Triggered by High Energy Fermi-LAT Photons 1303.2155 Pg# 354
31-10-2012 16:00 Other Extragalactic poster Giebels, Berrie Status and recent results from H.E.S.S 1303.2850 Pg# 357
01-11-2012 16:00 Other Extragalactic poster Arlen, Timothy Extreme TeV Blazars and Lower Limits on Intergalactic Magnetic Fields 1303.2121 Pg# 361
31-10-2012 16:00 Other Extragalactic poster Finke, Justin Constraints on the Intergalactic Magnetic Field from Gamma-Ray Observations of Blazars 1303.5093 Pg# 365
31-10-2012 16:00 Other Extragalactic poster Stecker, Floyd An Empirical Determination of the EBL and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe 1302.2065 Pg# 372
31-10-2012 16:00 Other Extragalactic poster McLin, Kevin Using the Big Ideas in Cosmology to Teach College Students 1303.1768 Pg# 378

Overview of the Proceedings Table

The interactive proceedings table above displays a list of 70 papers—22 representing oral presentations and 48 representing posters—that have been submitted to arXiv for inclusion in the 2012 Fermi Symposium Proceedings. For each paper, this table includes a link to its arXiv abstract web page and a link to its first page in the PDF Proceedings file. The table also includes links to PDF slide presentation files or posters and video files associated with some presentations.

Click the PDF Proceedings tab on the navigation bar to view/download the PDF file for the complete proceedings. Click the e-Program tab to view an interactive web version of the symposium program or click the PDF Program tab to view/download a PDF copy of the printed program. The About tab contains information about the proceedings editorial team and links to symposium web pages.

Table Columns Legend

Sorting the Table

Click a column heading to sort this table on that column. Click the heading again to reverse the sort order.

To reset the table into the order of the symposium PDF proceedings, sort the Page# column into ascending order.

To sort this proceedings table into the "times within dates" order of the symposium scientific program, do the following:

  1. Click the Date column once or twice until it's sorted in descending order.
  2. Click the Time column once or twice until it's sorted in ascending order.
  3. Click the Date column once to sort it into ascending order.

Back to Table

Preface to the Proceedings

The 2012 international symposium was the fourth in an ongoing series of meetings devoted to the operation, science, and data analysis for the Fermi Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (formerly known as GLAST). Since its launch in June 2008, Fermi has provided a wealth of gamma-ray data spanning topics ranging from the earth and our local solar system to the most distant objects in the universe, and from the moon to the most massive and energetic objects. The 4th Fermi Symposium provided a forum for researchers to discuss advances enabled by the Fermi data set, to gain new insights into both the objects observed by Fermi and the instrument itself, and to forge new and stronger collaborations for advancing knowledge across this huge breadth of topics.

This week long symposium was held at the Hyatt Hotel Conference Center in Monterey, California from Monday morning, 29 October – Friday noon, 2 November 2012. There were plenary sessions on each of the four and one half days, plus parallel sessions in the afternoons on Tuesday and Wednesday and a special Multiwavelength session on Tuesday evening. In addition, posters were on display Monday – Thursday, with dedicated discussion from 16:00 – 17:30 on Tuesday and Thursday afternoons. On Wednesday evening, 31 October, participants and guests enjoyed a strolling dinner and hosted bar at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Since it was Halloween, many participants arrived in costume, which added a festive flare to the evening. The musical trio “East-Moves-West,” featuring vocalists Jonelyn Langenstein (soprano) and Sepp Hammer (baritone), accompanied by keyboardist Kim Jungmee performed live next to the main aquarium fish tank and mesmerized the giant sea turtle inside the tank. In addition, participants and guests were treated to a popular lecture in the aquarium auditorium by Barbara Block, Stanford Professor of Marine Sciences, Evolutionary, Cellular and Molecular Physiology and Senior Fellow at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment. Dr. Block spoke on the topic “Sushi and Satellites: Tracking Top Marine Predators Across the Blue Planet.” Photos from the symposium and the evening at the Monterey Bay Aquarium can be viewed at: https://www-glast.stanford.edu/2012FermiSymp/pictures.html

Building on previous research and analysis of the ever-expanding volume of data that has been telemetered to Earth from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi spacecraft, this symposium featured 294 presentations—105 oral presentations delivered during plenary and parallel sessions and 189 accepted posters. Each oral and poster scientific presentation was assigned to one of ten topical categories:

  1. Instrumentation & Analysis
  2. Solar System 
  3. Pulsars
  4. Supernova Remnants & Pulsar Wind Nebulae
  5. Other Galactic Gamma-ray Sources
  6. Diffuse Emission
  7. Dark Matter & New Physics
  8. Active Galactic Nuclei
  9. Gamma-ray Bursts
  10. Other Extragalactic Gamma-ray Sources

For these symposium proceedings, a subset of 70 presenters authored or co-authored papers summarizing their research and submitted them to the Astrophysics group (astro-ph) on arXiv.org. Of the 70 papers comprising these proceedings, 22 represent oral presentations delivered during plenary or parallel sessions, and 48 represent poster presentations.

In the final symposium session on November 2nd, SLAC physicist, Seth Digel, looked back over the week’s presentations and summarized important Fermi research results, areas of ongoing investigation, and new areas of exploration. Following are some highlights from Dr. Digel’s summary.

After four and one half years in orbit, the Fermi spacecraft and its two main instruments—the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) are both in excellent working order and are functioning nominally. The LAT has triggered over 275 billion times and ground processing of the data has resulted in more than 225 million gamma-ray Source-class events. The GBM has detected over 1,000 gamma-ray bursts. In the 2012 NASA Senior Review, the Fermi mission was approved for continued full operations through 2014, with a recommended extension though 2016 and another review in 2014.

Within our solar system, research has focused on terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) and cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In addition, the moon is being studied as a passive gamma-ray source, and Fermi data has yielded insight into the Sun, solar flares and the heliospheric magnetic field.

Moving out to our galaxy, pulsars are a hot topic, with the number of LAT-detected pulsars approaching 200. The first blind search millisecond pulsar was announced during the week of the 2012 symposium, and the study of very high energy pulsars has advanced considerably since the 3rd Fermi Symposium in 2011. The first Fermi LAT catalog of supernova remnants is being compiled, and a search for pulsar wind nebulas continues, with approximately 15 candidates identified. Two new novas have also been identified since the 3rd Fermi Symposium, and Fermi’s view of the Galactic Center is being analyzed.

A number of recent studies have focused on using the Fermi-LAT for the indirect detection of cosmic rays and measurements of variation in cosmic-ray density. Another cluster of studies has directed attention to the composition and mechanisms producing two gamma-ray bubbles discovered by the Fermi-LAT above and below the Galactic plane.

Moving further out in our galaxy, considerable effort has focused on indirect searches for dark matter in a variety of places, including the Galactic Center and halo and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Two studies have shown that a broad emission pattern from Virgo is not consistent with gamma rays from a dark matter profile. Ground-based searches using the VERITAS telescope array in Arizona and searches for photon lines in the 130-135 GeV range have also been performed.

Beyond our galaxy, active galactic nuclei (AGN) have been a very productive research area. Correlation of Fermi gamma-ray sources with the WISE Infrared Catalog has led to the identification of many blazars. The quality and quantity of Fermi-LAT data has spawned new directions in AGN modeling.

Analysis of more than 1,000 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) captured by the GBM along with some 35 GRBs identified by the LAT is ongoing. New efforts are addressing the broadband modeling discrepancies generated by this wealth of data, and simulations show in detail how energy can be extracted from a spinning black hole with a thick accretion disc.

The diffuse background emission data are being analyzed to identify the contributions of various gamma-ray source categories. In addition, there has been notable progress in the analysis of extragalactic background light.

Finally, in the area of instrumentation and analysis, there was considerable discussion of Pass 7 performance and a Pass 7 reprocessing effort to update calibration constants for the LAT data. Detailed plans for Pass 8 processing were also presented and discussed. Observing in an all-sky survey mode has permitted a wealth of Fermi catalogs including the Second LAT Pulsar Catalog, the LAT GRB catalog, the Fermi-LAT SNR Catalog, the First Fermi-LAT Catalog of Sources greater than10GeV, the Catalog of Flaring Gamma-ray Sources, catalogs of LAT- and GBM-Detected TGFs, extension of the GBM GRB and Spectral Catalogs for years 3 and 4, the planned 5-Year Catalog of LAT Point Sources, and others.

— Bob Kahn, Seth Digel, Terri Brandt, Nicola Omodei and Colleen Wilson-Hodge
June 2013


Fermi Tag Cloud

Above is a Fermi Word Cloud—a visualization of the frequency distribution of words used in the abstracts submitted to the 2012 Fermi Symposium. The larger the size of a word, the more often it appeared. The colors are added for aesthetics.

Back to Table


This symposium was made possible by registration fees paid by the participants and by generous support from NASA and Stanford University.

International Science Organizing Committee

• William Atwood (UCSC) • Deirdre Horan (LLR)
• Ronaldo Bellazzini (INFN, Pisa) • Buell Jannuzi (U of Arizona)
• Roger Blandford (Stanford/KIPAC) • Victoria Kaspi (McGill U)
• Elliott Bloom (SLAC/KIPAC) • Nobuyuki Kawai (Tokyo)
• James Buckley (WashU) • Luca Latronico (INFN Torino)
• Fernando Camilo (Columbia U and Arecibo) • Alan Marscher (BU)
• Patrizia Caraveo (INAF-IASF, Milano) • Peter Michelson (Stanford)
• Eric Charles (SLAC) • Jonathan Ormes (Denver)
• Charles Dermer (NRL) • William Paciesas (UA Huntsville)
• Seth Digel (SLAC/KIPAC) • Anthony Readhead (Caltech)
• Dale Frail (NRAO) • Steven Ritz (UCSC)
• Bryan Gaensler (U Sydney) • Andrew Strong (MPE Garching)
• Neil Gehrels (GSFC) • Gino Tosti (INFN and University Perugia)
• Isabelle Grenier (Laboratoire AIM, Saclay) • Stefan Wagner (Heidelberg)
• Jochen Greiner (MPE) • Colleen Wilson-Hodge (MSFC)
• Elizabeth Hays (GSFC)  

Local Organizing Committee

• Tom Langenstein — Chair, Stanford University, USA • Peter Michelson, Stanford University, USA
• Nancy Christiansen, Stanford University, USA • Nicola Omodei, Stanford University, USA
• Lynn Cominsky, Sonoma State University, USA • Steve Ritz, University of California Santa Cruz, USA
• WenLi Heffner (a.k.a Lucy Zhou), Stanford University, USA • Dorrene Ross, Stanford University, USA
• Bob Kahn, Stanford University, USA • Giovanna Senatore, Stanford University, USA

We are grateful to Aurore Simonnet, Lynn Cominsky and the Fermi EPO team at Sonoma State University, who designed and produced the excellent Program Book and the symposium poster. Also, thanks to J.D. Myers at NASA-Goddard and to Giovanna Senatore at Stanford who produced the NASA and Stanford symposium websites, respectively, and who also provided very helpful web support.

Thanks to Bob Kahn at Stanford for providing guidance and support to presenters in the preparation and delivery of presentations during plenary and parallel sessions. We also thank Bob for designing and producing these proceedings, with help from the Proceedings Editorial Committee: Nicola Omodei, and Giovanna Senatore from Stanford, Terri Brandt from NASA-Goddard and Colleen Wilson-Hodge from NASA-MSFC.

We are particularly grateful for the dedicated work of Tom Langenstein, WenLi Heffner and Peter Michelson at Stanford who anticipated and solved a wide range of logistical problems efficiently and professionally. In addition, we’re grateful to Nancy Christiansen and Dorrene Ross at Stanford and to Julie McEnery and Terri Brandt at NASA-Goddard for their work on various facets of the symposium, from registration to vendor arrangements to creating and maintaining the presenter’s database and many other important tasks.

Lastly, we acknowledge the strong international support and essential contributions to the Fermi mission from Italy, France, Germany, Japan, and Sweden. Finally, we thank all our collaborators and co-workers of the international Fermi mission team who have worked so hard to bring us to this point.

Back to Table