gdb.info: Stack

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Examining the Stack

When your program has stopped, the first thing you need to know is
where it stopped and how it got there.
   Each time your program performs a function call, information about
the call is generated.  That information includes the location of the
call in your program, the arguments of the call, and the local
variables of the function being called.  The information is saved in a
block of data called a "stack frame".  The stack frames are allocated
in a region of memory called the "call stack".
   When your program stops, the GDB commands for examining the stack
allow you to see all of this information.
   One of the stack frames is "selected" by GDB and many GDB commands
refer implicitly to the selected frame.  In particular, whenever you
ask GDB for the value of a variable in your program, the value is found
in the selected frame.  There are special GDB commands to select
whichever frame you are interested in. *Note Selecting a frame:
Selection.
   When your program stops, GDB automatically selects the currently
executing frame and describes it briefly, similar to the `frame'
command (*note Information about a frame: Frame Info.).