gdb.info: Bytecode Descriptions

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Bytecode Descriptions

Each bytecode description has the following form:
`add' (0x02): A B => A+B
     Pop the top two stack items, A and B, as integers; push their sum,
     as an integer.
   In this example, `add' is the name of the bytecode, and `(0x02)' is
the one-byte value used to encode the bytecode, in hexidecimal.  The
phrase "A B => A+B" shows the stack before and after the bytecode
executes.  Beforehand, the stack must contain at least two values, A
and B; since the top of the stack is to the right, B is on the top of
the stack, and A is underneath it.  After execution, the bytecode will
have popped A and B from the stack, and replaced them with a single
value, A+B.  There may be other values on the stack below those shown,
but the bytecode affects only those shown.
   Here is another example:
`const8' (0x22) N: => N
     Push the 8-bit integer constant N on the stack, without sign
     extension.
   In this example, the bytecode `const8' takes an operand N directly
from the bytecode stream; the operand follows the `const8' bytecode
itself.  We write any such operands immediately after the name of the
bytecode, before the colon, and describe the exact encoding of the
operand in the bytecode stream in the body of the bytecode description.
   For the `const8' bytecode, there are no stack items given before the
=>; this simply means that the bytecode consumes no values from the
stack.  If a bytecode consumes no values, or produces no values, the
list on either side of the => may be empty.
   If a value is written as A, B, or N, then the bytecode treats it as
an integer.  If a value is written is ADDR, then the bytecode treats it
as an address.
   We do not fully describe the floating point operations here; although
this design can be extended in a clean way to handle floating point
values, they are not of immediate interest to the customer, so we avoid
describing them, to save time.
`float' (0x01): =>
     Prefix for floating-point bytecodes.  Not implemented yet.
`add' (0x02): A B => A+B
     Pop two integers from the stack, and push their sum, as an integer.
`sub' (0x03): A B => A-B
     Pop two integers from the stack, subtract the top value from the
     next-to-top value, and push the difference.
`mul' (0x04): A B => A*B
     Pop two integers from the stack, multiply them, and push the
     product on the stack.  Note that, when one multiplies two N-bit
     numbers yielding another N-bit number, it is irrelevant whether the
     numbers are signed or not; the results are the same.
`div_signed' (0x05): A B => A/B
     Pop two signed integers from the stack; divide the next-to-top
     value by the top value, and push the quotient.  If the divisor is
     zero, terminate with an error.
`div_unsigned' (0x06): A B => A/B
     Pop two unsigned integers from the stack; divide the next-to-top
     value by the top value, and push the quotient.  If the divisor is
     zero, terminate with an error.
`rem_signed' (0x07): A B => A MODULO B
     Pop two signed integers from the stack; divide the next-to-top
     value by the top value, and push the remainder.  If the divisor is
     zero, terminate with an error.
`rem_unsigned' (0x08): A B => A MODULO B
     Pop two unsigned integers from the stack; divide the next-to-top
     value by the top value, and push the remainder.  If the divisor is
     zero, terminate with an error.
`lsh' (0x09): A B => A<<B
     Pop two integers from the stack; let A be the next-to-top value,
     and B be the top value.  Shift A left by B bits, and push the
     result.
`rsh_signed' (0x0a): A B => `(signed)'A>>B
     Pop two integers from the stack; let A be the next-to-top value,
     and B be the top value.  Shift A right by B bits, inserting copies
     of the top bit at the high end, and push the result.
`rsh_unsigned' (0x0b): A B => A>>B
     Pop two integers from the stack; let A be the next-to-top value,
     and B be the top value.  Shift A right by B bits, inserting zero
     bits at the high end, and push the result.
`log_not' (0x0e): A => !A
     Pop an integer from the stack; if it is zero, push the value one;
     otherwise, push the value zero.
`bit_and' (0x0f): A B => A&B
     Pop two integers from the stack, and push their bitwise `and'.
`bit_or' (0x10): A B => A|B
     Pop two integers from the stack, and push their bitwise `or'.
`bit_xor' (0x11): A B => A^B
     Pop two integers from the stack, and push their bitwise
     exclusive-`or'.
`bit_not' (0x12): A => ~A
     Pop an integer from the stack, and push its bitwise complement.
`equal' (0x13): A B => A=B
     Pop two integers from the stack; if they are equal, push the value
     one; otherwise, push the value zero.
`less_signed' (0x14): A B => A<B
     Pop two signed integers from the stack; if the next-to-top value
     is less than the top value, push the value one; otherwise, push
     the value zero.
`less_unsigned' (0x15): A B => A<B
     Pop two unsigned integers from the stack; if the next-to-top value
     is less than the top value, push the value one; otherwise, push
     the value zero.
`ext' (0x16) N: A => A, sign-extended from N bits
     Pop an unsigned value from the stack; treating it as an N-bit
     twos-complement value, extend it to full length.  This means that
     all bits to the left of bit N-1 (where the least significant bit
     is bit 0) are set to the value of bit N-1.  Note that N may be
     larger than or equal to the width of the stack elements of the
     bytecode engine; in this case, the bytecode should have no effect.
     The number of source bits to preserve, N, is encoded as a single
     byte unsigned integer following the `ext' bytecode.
`zero_ext' (0x2a) N: A => A, zero-extended from N bits
     Pop an unsigned value from the stack; zero all but the bottom N
     bits.  This means that all bits to the left of bit N-1 (where the
     least significant bit is bit 0) are set to the value of bit N-1.
     The number of source bits to preserve, N, is encoded as a single
     byte unsigned integer following the `zero_ext' bytecode.
`ref8' (0x17): ADDR => A
`ref16' (0x18): ADDR => A
`ref32' (0x19): ADDR => A
`ref64' (0x1a): ADDR => A
     Pop an address ADDR from the stack.  For bytecode `ref'N, fetch an
     N-bit value from ADDR, using the natural target endianness.  Push
     the fetched value as an unsigned integer.
     Note that ADDR may not be aligned in any particular way; the
     `refN' bytecodes should operate correctly for any address.
     If attempting to access memory at ADDR would cause a processor
     exception of some sort, terminate with an error.
`ref_float' (0x1b): ADDR => D
`ref_double' (0x1c): ADDR => D
`ref_long_double' (0x1d): ADDR => D
`l_to_d' (0x1e): A => D
`d_to_l' (0x1f): D => A
     Not implemented yet.
`dup' (0x28): A => A A
     Push another copy of the stack's top element.
`swap' (0x2b): A B => B A
     Exchange the top two items on the stack.
`pop' (0x29): A =>
     Discard the top value on the stack.
`if_goto' (0x20) OFFSET: A =>
     Pop an integer off the stack; if it is non-zero, branch to the
     given offset in the bytecode string.  Otherwise, continue to the
     next instruction in the bytecode stream.  In other words, if A is
     non-zero, set the `pc' register to `start' + OFFSET.  Thus, an
     offset of zero denotes the beginning of the expression.
     The OFFSET is stored as a sixteen-bit unsigned value, stored
     immediately following the `if_goto' bytecode.  It is always stored
     most significant byte first, regardless of the target's normal
     endianness.  The offset is not guaranteed to fall at any particular
     alignment within the bytecode stream; thus, on machines where
     fetching a 16-bit on an unaligned address raises an exception, you
     should fetch the offset one byte at a time.
`goto' (0x21) OFFSET: =>
     Branch unconditionally to OFFSET; in other words, set the `pc'
     register to `start' + OFFSET.
     The offset is stored in the same way as for the `if_goto' bytecode.
`const8' (0x22) N: => N
`const16' (0x23) N: => N
`const32' (0x24) N: => N
`const64' (0x25) N: => N
     Push the integer constant N on the stack, without sign extension.
     To produce a small negative value, push a small twos-complement
     value, and then sign-extend it using the `ext' bytecode.
     The constant N is stored in the appropriate number of bytes
     following the `const'B bytecode.  The constant N is always stored
     most significant byte first, regardless of the target's normal
     endianness.  The constant is not guaranteed to fall at any
     particular alignment within the bytecode stream; thus, on machines
     where fetching a 16-bit on an unaligned address raises an
     exception, you should fetch N one byte at a time.
`reg' (0x26) N: => A
     Push the value of register number N, without sign extension.  The
     registers are numbered following GDB's conventions.
     The register number N is encoded as a 16-bit unsigned integer
     immediately following the `reg' bytecode.  It is always stored most
     significant byte first, regardless of the target's normal
     endianness.  The register number is not guaranteed to fall at any
     particular alignment within the bytecode stream; thus, on machines
     where fetching a 16-bit on an unaligned address raises an
     exception, you should fetch the register number one byte at a time.
`trace' (0x0c): ADDR SIZE =>
     Record the contents of the SIZE bytes at ADDR in a trace buffer,
     for later retrieval by GDB.
`trace_quick' (0x0d) SIZE: ADDR => ADDR
     Record the contents of the SIZE bytes at ADDR in a trace buffer,
     for later retrieval by GDB.  SIZE is a single byte unsigned
     integer following the `trace' opcode.
     This bytecode is equivalent to the sequence `dup const8 SIZE
     trace', but we provide it anyway to save space in bytecode strings.
`trace16' (0x30) SIZE: ADDR => ADDR
     Identical to trace_quick, except that SIZE is a 16-bit big-endian
     unsigned integer, not a single byte.  This should probably have
     been named `trace_quick16', for consistency.
`end' (0x27): =>
     Stop executing bytecode; the result should be the top element of
     the stack.  If the purpose of the expression was to compute an
     lvalue or a range of memory, then the next-to-top of the stack is
     the lvalue's address, and the top of the stack is the lvalue's
     size, in bytes.