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Search Path

   GCC looks in several different places for headers.  On a normal Unix
system, if you do not instruct it otherwise, it will look for headers
requested with `#include <FILE>' in:
   For C++ programs, it will also look in `/usr/include/g++-v3', first.
In the above, TARGET is the canonical name of the system GCC was
configured to compile code for; often but not always the same as the
canonical name of the system it runs on.  VERSION is the version of GCC
in use.
   You can add to this list with the `-IDIR' command line option.  All
the directories named by `-I' are searched, in left-to-right order,
_before_ the default directories.  The only exception is when `dir' is
already searched by default.  In this case, the option is ignored and
the search order for system directories remains unchanged.
   Duplicate directories are removed from the quote and bracket search
chains before the two chains are merged to make the final search chain.
Thus, it is possible for a directory to occur twice in the final search
chain if it was specified in both the quote and bracket chains.
   You can prevent GCC from searching any of the default directories
with the `-nostdinc' option.  This is useful when you are compiling an
operating system kernel or some other program that does not use the
standard C library facilities, or the standard C library itself.  `-I'
options are not ignored as described above when `-nostdinc' is in
   GCC looks for headers requested with `#include "FILE"' first in the
directory containing the current file, then in the same places it would
have looked for a header requested with angle brackets.  For example,
if `/usr/include/sys/stat.h' contains `#include "types.h"', GCC looks
for `types.h' first in `/usr/include/sys', then in its usual search
   `#line' (*note Line Control::) does not change GCC's idea of the
directory containing the current file.
   You may put `-I-' at any point in your list of `-I' options.  This
has two effects.  First, directories appearing before the `-I-' in the
list are searched only for headers requested with quote marks.
Directories after `-I-' are searched for all headers.  Second, the
directory containing the current file is not searched for anything,
unless it happens to be one of the directories named by an `-I' switch.
   `-I. -I-' is not the same as no `-I' options at all, and does not
cause the same behavior for `<>' includes that `""' includes get with
no special options.  `-I.' searches the compiler's current working
directory for header files.  That may or may not be the same as the
directory containing the current file.
   If you need to look for headers in a directory named `-', write
   There are several more ways to adjust the header search path.  They
are generally less useful.  *Note Invocation::.