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Overview

   Here is a brief summary of how to invoke `as'.  For details, *note
Comand-Line Options: Invoking..
     as [-a[cdhlns][=FILE]] [-D] [-defsym SYM=VAL]
      [-f] [-gstabs] [-gdwarf2] [-help] [-I DIR]
      [-J] [-K] [-L]
      [-listing-lhs-width=NUM] [-listing-lhs-width2=NUM]
      [-listing-rhs-width=NUM] [-listing-cont-lines=NUM]
      [-keep-locals] [-o OBJFILE] [-R] [-statistics] [-v]
      [-version] [-version] [-W] [-warn] [-fatal-warnings]
      [-w] [-x] [-Z] [-target-help] [TARGET-OPTIONS]
      [-|FILES ...]
     _Target Alpha options:_
        [-mCPU]
        [-mdebug | -no-mdebug]
        [-relax] [-g] [-GSIZE]
        [-F] [-32addr]
     _Target ARC options:_
        [-marc[5|6|7|8]]
        [-EB|-EL]
     _Target ARM options:_
        [-mcpu=PROCESSOR[+EXTENSION...]]
        [-march=ARCHITECTURE[+EXTENSION...]]
        [-mfpu=FLOATING-POINT-FROMAT]
        [-mthumb]
        [-EB|-EL]
        [-mapcs-32|-mapcs-26|-mapcs-float|
         -mapcs-reentrant]
        [-mthumb-interwork] [-moabi] [-k]
     _Target CRIS options:_
        [-underscore | -no-underscore]
        [-pic] [-N]
        [-emulation=criself | -emulation=crisaout]
     _Target D10V options:_
        [-O]
     _Target D30V options:_
        [-O|-n|-N]
     _Target i386 options:_
        [-32|-64]
     _Target i960 options:_
        [-ACA|-ACA_A|-ACB|-ACC|-AKA|-AKB|
         -AKC|-AMC]
        [-b] [-no-relax]
     _Target M32R options:_
        [-m32rx|-[no-]warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts|
        -W[n]p]
     _Target M680X0 options:_
        [-l] [-m68000|-m68010|-m68020|...]
     _Target M68HC11 options:_
        [-m68hc11|-m68hc12]
        [-force-long-branchs] [-short-branchs]
        [-strict-direct-mode] [-print-insn-syntax]
        [-print-opcodes] [-generate-example]
     _Target MCORE options:_
        [-jsri2bsr] [-sifilter] [-relax]
        [-mcpu=[210|340]]
     _Target MIPS options:_
        [-nocpp] [-EL] [-EB] [-n] [-O[OPTIMIZATION LEVEL]]
        [-g[DEBUG LEVEL]] [-G NUM] [-KPIC] [-call_shared]
        [-non_shared] [-xgot] [-membedded-pic]
        [-mabi=ABI] [-32] [-n32] [-64] [-mfp32] [-mgp32]
        [-march=CPU] [-mtune=CPU] [-mips1] [-mips2]
        [-mips3] [-mips4] [-mips5] [-mips32] [-mips64]
        [-construct-floats] [-no-construct-floats]
        [-trap] [-no-break] [-break] [-no-trap]
        [-mfix7000] [-mno-fix7000]
        [-mips16] [-no-mips16]
        [-mips3d] [-no-mips3d]
        [-mdmx] [-no-mdmx]
        [-mdebug] [-no-mdebug]
     _Target MMIX options:_
        [-fixed-special-register-names] [-globalize-symbols]
        [-gnu-syntax] [-relax] [-no-predefined-symbols]
        [-no-expand] [-no-merge-gregs] [-x]
        [-linker-allocated-gregs]
     _Target PDP11 options:_
        [-mpic|-mno-pic] [-mall] [-mno-extensions]
        [-mEXTENSION|-mno-EXTENSION]
        [-mCPU] [-mMACHINE]
     _Target picoJava options:_
        [-mb|-me]
     _Target PowerPC options:_
        [-mpwrx|-mpwr2|-mpwr|-m601|-mppc|-mppc32|-m603|-m604|
         -m403|-m405|-mppc64|-m620|-mppc64bridge|-mbooke|
         -mbooke32|-mbooke64]
        [-mcom|-many|-maltivec] [-memb]
        [-mregnames|-mno-regnames]
        [-mrelocatable|-mrelocatable-lib]
        [-mlittle|-mlittle-endian|-mbig|-mbig-endian]
        [-msolaris|-mno-solaris]
     _Target SPARC options:_
        [-Av6|-Av7|-Av8|-Asparclet|-Asparclite
         -Av8plus|-Av8plusa|-Av9|-Av9a]
        [-xarch=v8plus|-xarch=v8plusa] [-bump]
        [-32|-64]
`-a[cdhlmns]'
     Turn on listings, in any of a variety of ways:
    `-ac'
          omit false conditionals
    `-ad'
          omit debugging directives
    `-ah'
          include high-level source
    `-al'
          include assembly
    `-am'
          include macro expansions
    `-an'
          omit forms processing
    `-as'
          include symbols
    `=file'
          set the name of the listing file
     You may combine these options; for example, use `-aln' for assembly
     listing without forms processing.  The `=file' option, if used,
     must be the last one.  By itself, `-a' defaults to `-ahls'.
`-D'
     Ignored.  This option is accepted for script compatibility with
     calls to other assemblers.
`--defsym SYM=VALUE'
     Define the symbol SYM to be VALUE before assembling the input file.
     VALUE must be an integer constant.  As in C, a leading `0x'
     indicates a hexadecimal value, and a leading `0' indicates an
     octal value.
`-f'
     "fast"--skip whitespace and comment preprocessing (assume source is
     compiler output).
`--gstabs'
     Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line.  This
     may help debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle it.
`--gdwarf2'
     Generate DWARF2 debugging information for each assembler line.
     This may help debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle
     it.  Note - this option is only supported by some targets, not all
     of them.
`--help'
     Print a summary of the command line options and exit.
`--target-help'
     Print a summary of all target specific options and exit.
`-I DIR'
     Add directory DIR to the search list for `.include' directives.
`-J'
     Don't warn about signed overflow.
`-K'
     Issue warnings when difference tables altered for long
     displacements.
`-L'
`--keep-locals'
     Keep (in the symbol table) local symbols.  On traditional a.out
     systems these start with `L', but different systems have different
     local label prefixes.
`--listing-lhs-width=NUMBER'
     Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for an
     assembler listing to NUMBER.
`--listing-lhs-width2=NUMBER'
     Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for
     continuation lines in an assembler listing to NUMBER.
`--listing-rhs-width=NUMBER'
     Set the maximum width of an input source line, as displayed in a
     listing, to NUMBER bytes.
`--listing-cont-lines=NUMBER'
     Set the maximum number of lines printed in a listing for a single
     line of input to NUMBER + 1.
`-o OBJFILE'
     Name the object-file output from `as' OBJFILE.
`-R'
     Fold the data section into the text section.
`--statistics'
     Print the maximum space (in bytes) and total time (in seconds)
     used by assembly.
`--strip-local-absolute'
     Remove local absolute symbols from the outgoing symbol table.
`-v'
`-version'
     Print the `as' version.
`--version'
     Print the `as' version and exit.
`-W'
`--no-warn'
     Suppress warning messages.
`--fatal-warnings'
     Treat warnings as errors.
`--warn'
     Don't suppress warning messages or treat them as errors.
`-w'
     Ignored.
`-x'
     Ignored.
`-Z'
     Generate an object file even after errors.
`-- | FILES ...'
     Standard input, or source files to assemble.
   The following options are available when as is configured for an ARC
processor.
`-marc[5|6|7|8]'
     This option selects the core processor variant.
`-EB | -EL'
     Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.
   The following options are available when as is configured for the ARM
processor family.
`-mcpu=PROCESSOR[+EXTENSION...]'
     Specify which ARM processor variant is the target.
`-march=ARCHITECTURE[+EXTENSION...]'
     Specify which ARM architecture variant is used by the target.
`-mfpu=FLOATING-POINT-FORMAT'
     Select which Floating Point architecture is the target.
`-mthumb'
     Enable Thumb only instruction decoding.
`-mapcs-32 | -mapcs-26 | -mapcs-float | -mapcs-reentrant | -moabi'
     Select which procedure calling convention is in use.
`-EB | -EL'
     Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.
`-mthumb-interwork'
     Specify that the code has been generated with interworking between
     Thumb and ARM code in mind.
`-k'
     Specify that PIC code has been generated.
   See the info pages for documentation of the CRIS-specific options.
   The following options are available when as is configured for a D10V
processor.
`-O'
     Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.
   The following options are available when as is configured for a D30V
processor.
`-O'
     Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.
`-n'
     Warn when nops are generated.
`-N'
     Warn when a nop after a 32-bit multiply instruction is generated.
   The following options are available when as is configured for the
Intel 80960 processor.
`-ACA | -ACA_A | -ACB | -ACC | -AKA | -AKB | -AKC | -AMC'
     Specify which variant of the 960 architecture is the target.
`-b'
     Add code to collect statistics about branches taken.
`-no-relax'
     Do not alter compare-and-branch instructions for long
     displacements; error if necessary.
   The following options are available when as is configured for the
Mitsubishi M32R series.
`--m32rx'
     Specify which processor in the M32R family is the target.  The
     default is normally the M32R, but this option changes it to the
     M32RX.
`--warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wp'
     Produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are
     encountered.
`--no-warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wnp'
     Do not produce warning messages when questionable parallel
     constructs are encountered.
   The following options are available when as is configured for the
Motorola 68000 series.
`-l'
     Shorten references to undefined symbols, to one word instead of
     two.
`-m68000 | -m68008 | -m68010 | -m68020 | -m68030'
`| -m68040 | -m68060 | -m68302 | -m68331 | -m68332'
`| -m68333 | -m68340 | -mcpu32 | -m5200'
     Specify what processor in the 68000 family is the target.  The
     default is normally the 68020, but this can be changed at
     configuration time.
`-m68881 | -m68882 | -mno-68881 | -mno-68882'
     The target machine does (or does not) have a floating-point
     coprocessor.  The default is to assume a coprocessor for 68020,
     68030, and cpu32.  Although the basic 68000 is not compatible with
     the 68881, a combination of the two can be specified, since it's
     possible to do emulation of the coprocessor instructions with the
     main processor.
`-m68851 | -mno-68851'
     The target machine does (or does not) have a memory-management
     unit coprocessor.  The default is to assume an MMU for 68020 and
     up.
   For details about the PDP-11 machine dependent features options, see
*Note PDP-11-Options::.
`-mpic | -mno-pic'
     Generate position-independent (or position-dependent) code.  The
     default is `-mpic'.
`-mall'
`-mall-extensions'
     Enable all instruction set extensions.  This is the default.
`-mno-extensions'
     Disable all instruction set extensions.
`-mEXTENSION | -mno-EXTENSION'
     Enable (or disable) a particular instruction set extension.
`-mCPU'
     Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a particular
     CPU, and disable all other extensions.
`-mMACHINE'
     Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a particular
     machine model, and disable all other extensions.
   The following options are available when as is configured for a
picoJava processor.
`-mb'
     Generate "big endian" format output.
`-ml'
     Generate "little endian" format output.
   The following options are available when as is configured for the
Motorola 68HC11 or 68HC12 series.
`-m68hc11 | -m68hc12'
     Specify what processor is the target.  The default is defined by
     the configuration option when building the assembler.
`--force-long-branchs'
     Relative branches are turned into absolute ones. This concerns
     conditional branches, unconditional branches and branches to a sub
     routine.
`-S | --short-branchs'
     Do not turn relative branchs into absolute ones when the offset is
     out of range.
`--strict-direct-mode'
     Do not turn the direct addressing mode into extended addressing
     mode when the instruction does not support direct addressing mode.
`--print-insn-syntax'
     Print the syntax of instruction in case of error.
`--print-opcodes'
     print the list of instructions with syntax and then exit.
`--generate-example'
     print an example of instruction for each possible instruction and
     then exit.  This option is only useful for testing `as'.
   The following options are available when `as' is configured for the
SPARC architecture:
`-Av6 | -Av7 | -Av8 | -Asparclet | -Asparclite'
`-Av8plus | -Av8plusa | -Av9 | -Av9a'
     Explicitly select a variant of the SPARC architecture.
     `-Av8plus' and `-Av8plusa' select a 32 bit environment.  `-Av9'
     and `-Av9a' select a 64 bit environment.
     `-Av8plusa' and `-Av9a' enable the SPARC V9 instruction set with
     UltraSPARC extensions.
`-xarch=v8plus | -xarch=v8plusa'
     For compatibility with the Solaris v9 assembler.  These options are
     equivalent to -Av8plus and -Av8plusa, respectively.
`-bump'
     Warn when the assembler switches to another architecture.
   The following options are available when as is configured for a MIPS
processor.
`-G NUM'
     This option sets the largest size of an object that can be
     referenced implicitly with the `gp' register.  It is only accepted
     for targets that use ECOFF format, such as a DECstation running
     Ultrix.  The default value is 8.
`-EB'
     Generate "big endian" format output.
`-EL'
     Generate "little endian" format output.
`-mips1'
`-mips2'
`-mips3'
`-mips4'
`-mips5'
`-mips32'
`-mips64'
     Generate code for a particular MIPS Instruction Set Architecture
     level.  `-mips1' is an alias for `-march=r3000', `-mips2' is an
     alias for `-march=r6000', `-mips3' is an alias for `-march=r4000'
     and `-mips4' is an alias for `-march=r8000'.  `-mips5', `-mips32',
     and `-mips64' correspond to generic `MIPS V', `MIPS32', and
     `MIPS64' ISA processors, respectively.
`-march=CPU'
     Generate code for a particular MIPS cpu.
`-mtune=CPU'
     Schedule and tune for a particular MIPS cpu.
`-mfix7000'
`-mno-fix7000'
     Cause nops to be inserted if the read of the destination register
     of an mfhi or mflo instruction occurs in the following two
     instructions.
`-mdebug'
`-no-mdebug'
     Cause stabs-style debugging output to go into an ECOFF-style
     .mdebug section instead of the standard ELF .stabs sections.
`-mgp32'
`-mfp32'
     The register sizes are normally inferred from the ISA and ABI, but
     these flags force a certain group of registers to be treated as 32
     bits wide at all times.  `-mgp32' controls the size of
     general-purpose registers and `-mfp32' controls the size of
     floating-point registers.
`-mips16'
`-no-mips16'
     Generate code for the MIPS 16 processor.  This is equivalent to
     putting `.set mips16' at the start of the assembly file.
     `-no-mips16' turns off this option.
`-mips3d'
`-no-mips3d'
     Generate code for the MIPS-3D Application Specific Extension.
     This tells the assembler to accept MIPS-3D instructions.
     `-no-mips3d' turns off this option.
`-mdmx'
`-no-mdmx'
     Generate code for the MDMX Application Specific Extension.  This
     tells the assembler to accept MDMX instructions.  `-no-mdmx' turns
     off this option.
`--construct-floats'
`--no-construct-floats'
     The `--no-construct-floats' option disables the construction of
     double width floating point constants by loading the two halves of
     the value into the two single width floating point registers that
     make up the double width register.  By default
     `--construct-floats' is selected, allowing construction of these
     floating point constants.
`--emulation=NAME'
     This option causes `as' to emulate `as' configured for some other
     target, in all respects, including output format (choosing between
     ELF and ECOFF only), handling of pseudo-opcodes which may generate
     debugging information or store symbol table information, and
     default endianness.  The available configuration names are:
     `mipsecoff', `mipself', `mipslecoff', `mipsbecoff', `mipslelf',
     `mipsbelf'.  The first two do not alter the default endianness
     from that of the primary target for which the assembler was
     configured; the others change the default to little- or big-endian
     as indicated by the `b' or `l' in the name.  Using `-EB' or `-EL'
     will override the endianness selection in any case.
     This option is currently supported only when the primary target
     `as' is configured for is a MIPS ELF or ECOFF target.
     Furthermore, the primary target or others specified with
     `--enable-targets=...' at configuration time must include support
     for the other format, if both are to be available.  For example,
     the Irix 5 configuration includes support for both.
     Eventually, this option will support more configurations, with more
     fine-grained control over the assembler's behavior, and will be
     supported for more processors.
`-nocpp'
     `as' ignores this option.  It is accepted for compatibility with
     the native tools.
`--trap'
`--no-trap'
`--break'
`--no-break'
     Control how to deal with multiplication overflow and division by
     zero.  `--trap' or `--no-break' (which are synonyms) take a trap
     exception (and only work for Instruction Set Architecture level 2
     and higher); `--break' or `--no-trap' (also synonyms, and the
     default) take a break exception.
`-n'
     When this option is used, `as' will issue a warning every time it
     generates a nop instruction from a macro.
   The following options are available when as is configured for an
MCore processor.
`-jsri2bsr'
`-nojsri2bsr'
     Enable or disable the JSRI to BSR transformation.  By default this
     is enabled.  The command line option `-nojsri2bsr' can be used to
     disable it.
`-sifilter'
`-nosifilter'
     Enable or disable the silicon filter behaviour.  By default this
     is disabled.  The default can be overridden by the `-sifilter'
     command line option.
`-relax'
     Alter jump instructions for long displacements.
`-mcpu=[210|340]'
     Select the cpu type on the target hardware.  This controls which
     instructions can be assembled.
`-EB'
     Assemble for a big endian target.
`-EL'
     Assemble for a little endian target.
   See the info pages for documentation of the MMIX-specific options.