Go to the previous, next section.

Formatting Mistakes

Besides mistakes in the content of your documentation, there are two kinds of mistake you can make with Texinfo: you can make mistakes with @-commands, and you can make mistakes with the structure of the nodes and chapters.

Emacs has two tools for catching the @-command mistakes and two for catching structuring mistakes.

For finding problems with @-commands, you can run TeX or a region formatting command on the region that has a problem; indeed, you can run these commands on each region as you write it.

For finding problems with the structure of nodes and chapters, you can use C-c C-s (texinfo-show-structure) and the related occur command and you can use the M-x Info-validate command.

The makeinfo program does an excellent job of catching errors and reporting them--far better than texinfo-format-region or texinfo-format-buffer. In addition, the various functions for automatically creating and updating node pointers and menus remove many opportunities for human error.

If you can, use the updating commands to create and insert pointers and menus. These prevent many errors. Then use makeinfo (or its Texinfo mode manifestations, makeinfo-region and makeinfo-buffer) to format your file and check for other errors. This is the best way to work with Texinfo. But if you cannot use makeinfo, or your problem is very puzzling, then you may want to use the tools described in this appendix.

Catching Errors with Info Formatting

After you have written part of a Texinfo file, you can use the texinfo-format-region or the makeinfo-region command to see whether the region formats properly.

Most likely, however, you are reading this section because for some reason you cannot use the makeinfo-region command; therefore, the rest of this section presumes that you are using texinfo-format-region.

If you have made a mistake with an @-command, texinfo-format-region will stop processing at or after the error and display an error message. To see where in the buffer the error occurred, switch to the `*Info Region*' buffer; the cursor will be in a position that is after the location of the error. Also, the text will not be formatted after the place where the error occurred (or more precisely, where it was detected).

For example, if you accidentally end a menu with the command @end menus with an `s' on the end, instead of with @end menu, you will see an error message that says:

@end menus is not handled by texinfo

The cursor will stop at the point in the buffer where the error occurs, or not long after it. The buffer will look like this:

---------- Buffer: *Info Region* ----------
* Menu:

* Using texinfo-show-structure::  How to use  
                                  to catch mistakes.
* Running Info-Validate::         How to check for 
                                  unreferenced nodes.
@end menus
---------- Buffer: *Info Region* ----------

The texinfo-format-region command sometimes provides slightly odd error messages. For example, the following cross reference fails to format:

(@xref{Catching Mistakes, for more info.)

In this case, texinfo-format-region detects the missing closing brace but displays a message that says `Unbalanced parentheses' rather than `Unbalanced braces'. This is because the formatting command looks for mismatches between braces as if they were parentheses.

Sometimes texinfo-format-region fails to detect mistakes. For example, in the following, the closing brace is swapped with the closing parenthesis:

(@xref{Catching Mistakes), for more info.}

Formatting produces:

(*Note for more info.: Catching Mistakes)

The only way for you to detect this error is to realize that the reference should have looked like this:

(*Note Catching Mistakes::, for more info.)

Incidentally, if you are reading this node in Info and type f RET (Info-follow-reference), you will generate an error message that says:

No such node: "Catching Mistakes) The only way ...

This is because Info perceives the example of the error as the first cross reference in this node and if you type a RET immediately after typing the Info f command, Info will attempt to go to the referenced node. If you type f catch TAB RET, Info will complete the node name of the correctly written example and take you to the `Catching Mistakes' node. (If you try this, you can return from the `Catching Mistakes' node by typing l (Info-last).)

Catching Errors with TeX Formatting

You can also catch mistakes when you format a file with TeX.

Usually, you will want to do this after you have run texinfo-format-buffer (or, better, makeinfo-buffer) on the same file, because texinfo-format-buffer sometimes displays error messages that make more sense than TeX. (See section Catching Errors with Info Formatting, for more information.)

For example, TeX was run on a Texinfo file, part of which is shown here:

---------- Buffer: texinfo.texi ----------
name of the texinfo file as an extension.  The
@samp{??} are `wildcards' that cause the shell to
substitute all the raw index files.  (@xref{sorting
indices, for more information about sorting
---------- Buffer: texinfo.texi ----------

(The cross reference lacks a closing brace.) TeX produced the following output, after which it stopped:

---------- Buffer: *texinfo-tex-shell* ----------
Runaway argument?
{sorting indices, for more information about sorting 
indices.) @refill @ETC.
! Paragraph ended before @xref was complete.
<to be read again> 
---------- Buffer: *texinfo-tex-shell* ----------

In this case, TeX produced an accurate and understandable error message:

Paragraph ended before @xref was complete.

`@par' is an internal TeX command of no relevance to Texinfo. `l.27' means that TeX detected the problem on line 27 of the Texinfo file. The `?' is the prompt TeX uses in this circumstance.

Unfortunately, TeX is not always so helpful, and sometimes you must truly be a Sherlock Holmes to discover what went wrong.

In any case, if you run into a problem like this, you can do one of three things.

  1. You can tell TeX to continue running and ignore just this error by typing RET at the `?' prompt.

  2. You can tell TeX to continue running and to ignore all errors as best it can by typing r RET at the `?' prompt.

    This is often the best thing to do. However, beware: the one error may produce a cascade of additional error messages as its consequences are felt through the rest of the file. (To stop TeX when it is producing such an avalanche of error messages, type C-d (or C-c C-d, if you running a shell inside Emacs Version 18.))

  3. You can tell TeX to stop this run by typing x RET at the `?' prompt.

Please note that if you are running TeX inside Emacs, you need to switch to the shell buffer and line at which TeX offers the `?' prompt.

Sometimes TeX will format a file without producing error messages even though there is a problem. This usually occurs if a command is not ended but TeX is able to continue processing anyhow. For example, if you fail to end an itemized list with the @end itemize command, TeX will write a DVI file that you can print out. The only error message that TeX will give you is the somewhat mysterious comment that

(@end occurred inside a group at level 1)

However, if you print the DVI file, you will find that the text of the file that follows the itemized list is entirely indented as if it were part of the last item in the itemized list. The error message is the way TeX says that it expected to find an @end command somewhere in the file; but that it could not determine where it was needed.

Another source of notoriously hard-to-find errors is a missing @end group command. If you ever are stumped by incomprehensible errors, look for a missing @end group command first.

If the Texinfo file lacks header lines, TeX may stop in the beginning of its run and display output that looks like the following. The `*' indicates that TeX is waiting for input.

This is TeX, Version 2.0 for Berkeley UNIX 
(preloaded format=plain-cm 87.10.25) 
(test.texinfo [1])

In this case, simply type \end RET after the asterisk. Then write the header lines in the Texinfo file and run the TeX command again. (Note the use of the backslash, `\'. TeX uses `\' instead of `@'; and in this circumstance, you are working directly with TeX, not with Texinfo.)

Using texinfo-show-structure

It is not always easy to keep track of the nodes, chapters, sections, and subsections of a Texinfo file. This is especially true if you are revising or adding to a Texinfo file that someone else has written.

In GNU Emacs, in Texinfo mode, the texinfo-show-structure command lists all the lines that begin with the @-commands that specify the structure: @chapter, @section, @appendix, and so on. With an argument (C-u as prefix argument, if interactive), the command also shows the @node lines. The texinfo-show-structure command is bound to C-c C-s in Texinfo mode, by default.

The lines are displayed in a buffer called the `*Occur*' buffer. For example, when texinfo-show-structure was run on an earlier version of this appendix, it produced the following:

Lines matching "^@\\(chapter \\|sect\\|sub\\|unnum\\|major\\|
heading \\|appendix\\)" in buffer texinfo.texi.
  4:@appendix Formatting Mistakes
 52:@appendixsec Catching Errors with Info Formatting
222:@appendixsec Catching Errors with @TeX{} Formatting
338:@appendixsec Using @code{texinfo-show-structure}
407:@appendixsubsec Using @code{occur}
444:@appendixsec Finding Badly Referenced Nodes
513:@appendixsubsec Running @code{Info-validate}
573:@appendixsubsec Splitting a File Manually

This says that lines 4, 52, and 222 of `texinfo.texi' begin with the @appendix, @appendixsec, and @appendixsec commands respectively. If you move your cursor into the `*Occur*' window, you can position the cursor over one of the lines and use the C-c C-c command (occur-mode-goto-occurrence), to jump to the corresponding spot in the Texinfo file. See section `Using Occur' in The GNU Emacs Manual, for more information about occur-mode-goto-occurrence.

The first line in the `*Occur*' window describes the regular expression specified by texinfo-heading-pattern. This regular expression is the pattern that texinfo-show-structure looks for. See section `Using Regular Expressions' in The GNU Emacs Manual, for more information.

When you invoke the texinfo-show-structure command, Emacs will display the structure of the whole buffer. If you want to see the structure of just a part of the buffer, of one chapter, for example, use the C-x n (narrow-to-region) command to mark the region. (See section `Narrowing' in The GNU Emacs Manual.) This is how the example used above was generated. (To see the whole buffer again, use C-x w (widen).)

If you call texinfo-show-structure with a prefix argument by typing C-u C-c C-s, it will list lines beginning with @node as well as the lines beginning with the @-sign commands for @chapter, @section, and the like.

You can remind yourself of the structure of a Texinfo file by looking at the list in the `*Occur*' window; and if you have mis-named a node or left out a section, you can correct the mistake.

Using occur

Sometimes the texinfo-show-structure command produces too much information. Perhaps you want to remind yourself of the overall structure of a Texinfo file, and are overwhelmed by the detailed list produced by texinfo-show-structure. In this case, you can use the occur command directly. To do this, type

M-x occur

and then, when prompted, type a regexp, a regular expression for the pattern you want to match. (See section `Regular Expressions' in The GNU Emacs Manual.) The occur command works from the current location of the cursor in the buffer to the end of the buffer. If you want to run occur on the whole buffer, place the cursor at the beginning of the buffer.

For example, to see all the lines that contain the word `@chapter' in them, just type `@chapter'. This will produce a list of the chapters. It will also list all the sentences with `@chapter' in the middle of the line.

If you want to see only those lines that start with the word `@chapter', type `^@chapter' when prompted by occur. If you want to see all the lines that end with a word or phrase, end the last word with a `$'; for example, `catching mistakes$'. This can be helpful when you want to see all the nodes that are part of the same chapter or section and therefore have the same `Up' pointer.

See section `Using Occur' in The GNU Emacs Manual, for more information.

Finding Badly Referenced Nodes

You can use the Info-validate command to check whether any of the `Next', `Previous', `Up' or other node pointers fail to point to a node. This command checks that every node pointer points to an existing node. The Info-validate command works only on Info files, not on Texinfo files.

The makeinfo program validates pointers automatically, so you do not need to use the Info-validate command if you are using makeinfo. You only may need to use Info-validate if you are unable to run makeinfo and instead must create an Info file using texinfo-format-region or texinfo-format-buffer, or if you write an Info file from scratch.

Running Info-validate

To use Info-validate, visit the Info file you wish to check and type:

M-x Info-validate

(Note that the Info-validate command requires an upper case `I'. You may also need to create a tag table before running Info-validate. See section Tagifying a File.)

If your file is valid, you will receive a message that says "File appears valid". However, if you have a pointer that does not point to a node, error messages will be displayed in a buffer called `*problems in info file*'.

For example, Info-validate was run on a test file that contained only the first node of this manual. One of the messages said:

In node "Overview", invalid Next: Texinfo Mode

This meant that the node called `Overview' had a `Next' pointer that did not point to anything (which was true in this case, since the test file had only one node in it).

Now suppose we add a node named `Texinfo Mode' to our test case but we do not specify a `Previous' for this node. Then we will get the following error message:

In node "Texinfo Mode", should have Previous: Overview

This is because every `Next' pointer should be matched by a `Previous' (in the node where the `Next' points) which points back.

Info-validate also checks that all menu entries and cross references point to actual nodes.

Note that Info-validate requires a tag table and does not work with files that have been split. (The texinfo-format-buffer command automatically splits large files.) In order to use Info-validate on a large file, you must run texinfo-format-buffer with an argument so that it does not split the Info file; and you must create a tag table for the unsplit file.

Creating an Unsplit File

You can run Info-validate only on a single Info file that has a tag table. The command will not work on the indirect subfiles that are generated when a master file is split. If you have a large file (longer than 70,000 bytes or so), you need to run the texinfo-format-buffer or makeinfo-buffer command in such a way that it does not create indirect subfiles. You will also need to create a tag table for the Info file. After you have done this, you can run Info-validate and look for badly referenced nodes.

The first step is to create an unsplit Info file. To prevent texinfo-format-buffer from splitting a Texinfo file into smaller Info files, give a prefix to the M-x texinfo-format-buffer command:

C-u M-x texinfo-format-buffer

or else

C-u C-c C-e C-b

When you do this, Texinfo will not split the file and will not create a tag table for it.

Tagifying a File

After creating an unsplit Info file, you must create a tag table for it. Visit the Info file you wish to tagify and type:

M-x Info-tagify

(Note the upper case I in Info-tagify.) This creates an Info file with a tag table that you can validate.

The third step is to validate the Info file:

M-x Info-validate

(Note the upper case I in Info-validate.) In brief, the steps are:

C-u M-x texinfo-format-buffer
M-x Info-tagify
M-x Info-validate

After you have validated the node structure, you can rerun texinfo-format-buffer in the normal way so it will construct a tag table and split the file automatically, or you can make the tag table and split the file manually.

Splitting a File Manually

You should split a large file or else let the texinfo-format-buffer or makeinfo-buffer command do it for you automatically. (Generally you will let one of the formatting commands do this job for you. See section Creating an Info File.)

The split-off files are called the indirect subfiles.

Info files are split to save memory. With smaller files, Emacs does not have make such a large buffer to hold the information.

If an Info file has more than 30 nodes, you should also make a tag table for it. See section Running Info-validate, for information about creating a tag table. (Again, tag tables are usually created automatically by the formatting command; you only need to create a tag table yourself if you are doing the job manually. Most likely, you will do this for a large, unsplit file on which you have run Info-validate.)

Visit the Info file you wish to tagify and split and type the two commands:

M-x Info-tagify
M-x Info-split

(Note that the `I' in `Info' is upper case.)

When you use the Info-split command, the buffer is modified into a (small) Info file which lists the indirect subfiles. This file should be saved in place of the original visited file. The indirect subfiles are written in the same directory the original file is in, with names generated by appending `-' and a number to the original file name.

The primary file still functions as an Info file, but it contains just the tag table and a directory of subfiles.

Go to the previous, next section.