To turn C++ code into a runnable program, you need to compile and link the code. Compiling the code puts it together into things called libraries (lib files). Linking the code uses the information in these libraries to build a program.
The program is the ultimate goal of the compile-and-link stage. The programs are usually called executables, binaries, or applications. BaBar application names usually end in "App". For example, when you compile and link the code in the BetaMiniUser package, it produces an application called BetaMiniApp.
In the last section, you made some changes to C++ code in the BetaMiniUser package. But in order for these changes to be implemented, you have to recompile and relink your code to make a new BetaMiniApp that includes your changes.
This section begins with an introduction to gmake, BaBar's compile-and-link utility. Then you will compile and link your code from Example 2. The section also includes suggestions for how to deal with compile-and-link problems, and an optional, more detailed discussion of gmake's GNUmakefiles.
BaBar's compile-and-link utility is called gmake. The basic gmake command is:
> gmake <target>
This tells gmake to "make" or "build" the target.
Different targets correspond to different gmake actions.
Some important targets include
compile code, and
bin to link code.
The available targets and the instructions for building them
are defined in a file called
Whenever you issue a gmake command, gmake looks in the
current directory for a
GNUmakefile. Then it follows the
instructions for that target.
There is a
GNUmakefile in every release, including the test release you
GNUmakefiles are also included in any package that you check
GNUmakefile of the release is the master
why you usually issue gmake commands from the test release
directory. Commands issued from a package in a release will only
have access to targets defined in the package's
For general use of BaBar software, you will use gmake commands
often, but you will probably not need to write or modify a
Even users writing new analysis modules rarely need to make significant
modifications to a
On the other hand, as mentioned in the Quicktour, many of these targets are not needed for your simple BetaMiniUser job. For example, the database commands are needed only if you are planning to set up your own federated database, which is unlikely unless you are an advanced user running simulation software. Also, the javalinks and python targets are not really needed here. They are included in gmake all to ensure that the targets are made in the right order for users who do need them.
Different machine architectures have different compiled formats. To keep object files of different architecture formats separate the lib and bin directories have a subdirectory for each architecture that you compile code on.
The command that makes these subdirectories is gmake installdirs. A new test release comes with lib, bin, tmp and test directories, but they are all empty. The command gmake installdirs creates a subdirectory called $BFARCH in each one of these subdirectories. Here $BFARCH is the architecture that you chose when you entered the srtpath command; for example, Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323.
The include target creates any include files needed. These files record the dependencies among your source code files. Their names have the same root as the source file and a '.d' suffix. In BaBar software these files are stored in the tmp directory of your release.
Like the lib and bin directories, the tmp directory has a subdirectory for each architecture that you compile code on.
The command to compile your code is gmake lib.
Compiling a C++ file converts it into a re-locatable, architecture-dependent version of the source code. The result of this step is called an object. The object files also have the same root name as the source file with a '.o' suffix. Object files are also stored in the tmp directory of your test release.
These object files are swept into archive libraries. Libraries are stored in the lib directory of your release and have a '.a' suffix.
Once object modules have been created they need to be linked together to build the executable. The command to link your code is gmake bin. The new executables are placed in your bin/$BFARCH directory. If you list this directory, you will see a '*' after the names of most of the files, indicating that they are executables.
When issued from your test release directory, gmake clean will delete the files in the directories: bin, lib, tmp, test, and results for all architectures. This removes all object files, libraries, and the executable from your release so that you may restart the compilation and building process of the executable from a "clean" state.
A related useful target is cleanarch. The command gmake cleanarch is like gmake clean, but it removes only library, binary and temporary files saved under the current architecture (i.e. the architecture set when you most recently issued an srtpath command in the current session). It leaves the libraries and/or binaries built with other architectures intact.
So far, you have always used the command "gmake all" to compile and link your code. But if all you want to do is make the BetaMiniApp executable, then you need only some of the gmake commands invoked by "gmake all":
gmake lib gmake BetaMiniUser.bin
Or you could put them together to make a single command:
gmake lib BetaMiniUser.bin
You will notice that the link command, gmake BetaMiniUser.bin, is a bit different from the gmake bin command that you used before. In general, commands of the form "gmake package.target" perform the task "gmake target" on the files in "package" only. The command "gmake BetaMiniUser.bin" links only the code in BetaMiniUser. This is useful if you have a lot of packages checked out, because instead of making a bunch of executables that you don't need, you make only the BetaMiniUser executables.
Let's look at another example. Assume that you have checked out:
BetaMiniUser KanEvent RecoDataKand have made substantial changes to files in BetaMiniUser and a few in at least one of the other two packages. Assume also, that there are two binaries (i.e. executable files) that can possibly be built in the BetaMiniUser package, FirstApp and SecondApp, and that it takes a long time to compile the binaries. In the case that you care only about the SecondApp executable, a common series of commands would be:
gmake clean //remove pre-editing libraries and other temporary files gmake lib //rebuild the libraries for all the packages gmake BetaMiniUser.SecondApp //build only the SecondApp executableThe gmake clean command removes the library and binary files and other auxilliary and machine-generated files that existed before the package was edited to avoid possible conflicts. The gmake lib command need remakes all the needed library files. Then gmake BetaMiniUser.SecondApp builds the SecondApp executable.
Using only the gmake commands that you need can save you some compile time, and avoids the creation of lots of unnecessary files. A word of caution, however: if you are going to skip parts of gmake all, make sure that you know what you are doing. If your job keeps crashing, try gmake all instead.
GNU Make version 3.79.1, Build OPTIONS = Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323-Debug-native-Objy-Optimize-Fastbuild-Ldlink2-SkipSlaclog-Static-Lstatic Linux yakut06 2.4.21-47.ELsmp #1 SMP Thu Jul 20 10:30:12 CDT 2006 i686 athlon i386 GNU/Linux [uname -a] echo "-> lib"; for package in xx BetaMiniUser database workdir; do if [ "$package" != "xx" -a "$package" != "BASE" ]; then gmake $package.lib NOPKG=yes; fi; doneIf you can understand it, this message gives you an idea of what the gmake lib command would do if you entered it without the "-n" switch. However, if you check in your lib directory:
ana41> ls -l lib/$BFARCHyou will not find any new lib files; only old lib files (if you have compiled before) or none at all.
Another useful gmake command is "gmake -k TARGET". This command tells gmake to keep going even when some targets can't be made.
To see a full list of options and a description of each one, enter "gmake --help" at the command line.
Now it is time to compile and link your new code from Example 2 of the Editing Code section.
First, make sure you have done:
ana41> srtpath <enter> <enter> ana41> cond22boot
If you look in your lib and bin directories, you will see your old lib and bin files from the Quicktour: ana41> ls -l lib/$BFARCH total 2520 -rw-r--r-- 1 penguin br 2577960 Apr 20 21:17 libBetaMiniUser.a drwxr-xr-x 5 penguin br 2048 Apr 20 21:05 templates ana41> ls -l bin/$BFARCH/ total 69009 -rwxr-xr-x 1 penguin br 70663891 Apr 20 21:21 BetaMiniApp -rw-r--r-- 1 penguin br 72 Apr 20 21:23 Index
Let's clean out these old files before we begin, just to be on the safe side:
ana41> gmake cleanThe system will respond with something like this:
GNU Make version 3.79.1, Build OPTIONS = Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323-Debug-native-Objy-Optimize-Fastbuild-Ldlink2-SkipSlaclog-Static-Lstatic Linux yakut03 2.4.21-47.ELsmp #1 SMP Thu Jul 20 10:30:12 CDT 2006 i686 athlon i386 GNU/Linux [uname -a] -> clean: -> cleanarch: Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 'tmp/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323' is soft link to /afs/slac.stanford.edu/g/babar/build/p/penguin/ana41/tmp/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 'shtmp/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323' is soft link to /afs/slac.stanford.edu/g/babar/build/p/penguin/ana41/shtmp/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 rm -f -r bin/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 lib/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 shlib/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/shlib/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323/ldlink /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/shlib/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323/LDLINK /afs/slac.stanford.edu/g/babar/build/p/penguin/ana41/tmp/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 /afs/slac.stanford.edu/g/babar/build/p/penguin/ana41/shtmp/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 test/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 results mkdir bin/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 lib/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 shlib/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/shlib/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323/ldlink /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/shlib/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323/LDLINK /afs/slac.stanford.edu/g/babar/build/p/penguin/ana41/tmp/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 /afs/slac.stanford.edu/g/babar/build/p/penguin/ana41/shtmp/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 test/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323 results -> installdirs:(Here I have split the lines so the output would fit on the page.)
The gmake messages are actually quite useful - gmake tells you what it is doing. You can see from the above message that gmake clean removes your old xxx/$BFARCH directories, and then does a "gmake installdirs" to put back new, empty ones.
If you check your lib and bin directories again, you will find that they are now (almost) empty:
ana41> ls -l lib/$BFARCH total 2 drwxr-xr-x 5 penguin br 2048 Apr 21 20:44 templates ana41> ls -l bin/$BFARCH total 0 ana41>
Now you can compile and link your code. Compile and/or link jobs should always be send to the bldrecoq queue. From your test release issue
ana41> rm all.log ana41> bsub -q bldrecoq -o all.log gmake all
A feature of the batch system (bsub part of the command) is that log files are NOT overwritten. Instead, if you do not remove your old all.log file, then the output for the current job will be appended to the bottom of the old log file. To avoid that, you either have to delete the old log file, or choose a new name for your new log file. That is why you removed the old log file above.
The gmake all command compiles and links the code.
The first thing to do after compiling and linking is to check your bin directory to make sure that your binary was produced and that it is brand new:
ls -l bin/$BFARCH total 69014 -rwxr-xr-x 1 penguin br 70669051 Apr 21 20:56 BetaMiniApp -rw-r--r-- 1 penguin br 72 Apr 21 20:57 IndexAlso, check your log file to make sure there are no error messages. If your compile/link was successful, your log file will look something like this: all.log.
If you make a mistake when you edit BaBar code, then you will get an error messages on your terminal or in your log file. There are two types of problems that you could encounter:
This section will focus on the first type of error: compile and link errors. Later, the debugging section will teach you how to deal with run-time errors.
You may not have a successful compilation the first time. The more code you edit, the more likely you are to make a small mistake that could cause the compile or link process to fail.
The first thing you should do after every compile or link is check your bin directory to make sure your binary was produced and that it is brand new. If it was not produced, then you need to look in your log file to find out why gmake failed.
As an example, suppose you accidentally removed the line
#include "BetaMiniUser/QExample.hh"from QExample.cc. Then you try to compile and link with "gmake all" as usual. (You don't need to do this, you can just read this example. Though of course you are welcome to try it if you like.)
When this is done, you check the bin directory:
ana41> ls -l bin/$BFARCH total 1 -rw-r--r-- 1 penguin br 72 May 15 04:40 IndexThere is no BetaMiniApp in the bin directory. Something has gone wrong.
You investigate the log file for further clues. Here is the log file: all.log with errors. Note that the target that gmake is working on is indicated by the little arrows in the log file, "->BetaMiniUser.lib" and "->BetaMiniUser.bin".)
Scrolling down the log file, you find several gmake error messages. There's one in the BetaMiniUser.lib stage:
gmake: *** [/afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/lib/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323/l ibBetaMiniUser.a(QExample.o)] Error 1 gmake: *** [BetaMiniUser.lib] Error 2and one in the BetaMiniUser.bin stage:
gmake: *** [/afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/lib/Linux24SL3_i386_gcc323/l ibBetaMiniUser.a(QExample.o)] Error 1
Whenever you see those stars (***) and the word Error, that means you are in trouble.
Now look at the lines just above the ***/Error line to find out what was the last thing gmake did before it failed. Right before the lib-stage error, the message is:
Compiling QExample.cc [libBetaMiniUser.a] [cc-1] /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:25: syntax error before `::' token /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:37: syntax error before `::' token /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:51: syntax error before `::' token /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:57: warning: ISO C++ forbids declaration of `_numTrkHisto' with no type /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:57: `manager ' was not declared in this scope /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:58: warning: ISO C++ forbids declaration of `_pHisto' with no type /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:58: `manager ' was not declared in this scope /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:60: syntax error before `return' /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:66: syntax error before `::' token /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:75: syntax error before `::' token /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:83: syntax error before `->' token /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:86: `trkList ' was not declared in this scope /afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:88: syntax error before `while'
(In this case, the error messages for the lib and bin stages are identical. This does not always happen. In any case you should look at the errors from the earliest target first, because later targets depend on earlier targets. Fixing the lib-stage error might fix the bin-stage error automatically.)
One message that is repeated over and over again is "syntax error before '::' token." What does that mean? You're not sure. So you decide to look at the first error message that occurs, since that is the first place that gmake ran into trouble:
/afs/slac.stanford.edu/u/br/penguin/ana41/BetaMiniUser/QExample.cc:25: syntax error before `::' tokenHere is line 25 of QExample.cc:
QExample::QExample( const char* const theName,
The job fails at the beginning of the QExample constructor. Not only that, but according to the error message, it fails before the '::' token.
Now, there is only one thing in front of the '::' token: the word QExample. But QExample is a perfectly valid class - why should gmake think that it is a syntax error? It seems that for some reason, gmake does not recognize the QExample class. And if gmake does not recognize a class, then that is probably because it has not read the header file for that class.
Sure enough, when you check QExample.cc, you find that you have forgotten to include QExample.hh. This would explain the other error messages as well: every time gmake sees "QExample", it is confused because it does not know what QExample is. Furthermore, it also does not recognize _numTrkHisto, because this object was defined in QExample.hh as a private member object.
You put back the #include statement, and send your "gmake all" job again,
ana41> rm all.log ana41> bsub -q bldrecoq -o all.log gmake all
This time, everything worked fine:
ana41> ls -l lib/$BFARCH total 2408 -rw-r--r-- 1 penguin br 2462826 May 15 04:43 libBetaMiniUser.a drwxr-xr-x 5 penguin br 2048 May 15 04:36 templates ana41> ls -l bin/$BFARCH total 48073 -rwxr-xr-x 1 penguin br 49225543 May 15 04:44 BetaMiniApp -rw-r--r-- 1 penguin br 72 May 15 04:44 Index
There is a brand new BetaMiniApp! And you can tell from the time that BetaMiniUser's lib file has also been recompiled.
Normally, gmake is pretty good at figuring out what needs to be recompiled and what doesn't. But to be safe, you can issue a "gmake clean" to clean out all the old lib and bin files before you recompile.
The example above of course shows you only one example of the many, many possible error messages that can appear in your log file. Other typical compile errors include:
srtpath. (If you're not sure, it never hurts to issue this command again.)
Compile/link error messages can be confusing. It is not always obvious what the problem is. In the end, all you can do is try your best to decipher the log file. If you can't figure it out, then your best bet is to ask someone who has had more practice with gmake errors, or, if you are all alone, submit your problem to the prelimbugs Hypernews forum. When you submit your question, be sure to indicate:
For example, if you could not figure out what was wrong in the above example, you would first explain your problem, and then provide the following details:
You will get an answer much faster if you provide complete information.
If your compile-and-link problem occurs in one of the Workbook examples, then you can email me, the Workbook editor, and I'll see what I can do. Perhaps you have discovered a bug in the Workbook! (But please try to solve it yourself, first.)
Now you have learned most of what you need to know to
use gmake to compile and link. But you may find it helpful
to learn a bit more about how
One of the virtues of
GNUmakefiles is their ability to
handle the many dependencies among the many, many
lines of C++ code that must be put together to make an
executable. This (optional) section revisits the
with a focus on how these dependencies are managed.
An executable is built from the code defined in multiple files. When changes are made in one or more of these files the code in the modified files and all dependent files will need to be re-compiled and re-linked. Compile and link commands often involve many options, such as directory search paths for included files, names for compiled files, warning messages, debugging information and so forth. Compile and link commands quickly become quite lengthy, and in large software projects the dependencies amongst files is usually rather involved. gmake's job is to manage this complicated process.
GNUmakefiles define a set of instructions for how
to compile and assemble code segments into the executable. The
file also defines many variables such as search paths, which compiler
to use, etc. The instructions specify the dependencies of the code
segments so that the gmake utility can recognize only
those components that need to be reprocessed. A well-written makefile
can reduce unnecessary compilation and save much time.
The gmake facility looks in the current directory for a file named
GNUmakefile, makefile, or Makefile (in that order). The first one of
these files found is used to define the dependency/build rules for the given
The general structure of an instruction in the
GNUmakefile consists of
a target, a dependency, and a rule.
Associated with each target is a set of dependent files. When any of the
dependent files have been modified or if the target file
does not exist, the target will be rebuilt (or built)
in accordance with the rule. For example, a line in a
GNUmakefile might be:
foo.o : foo.cc foo.hh bar.hh g++ -c foo.ccThe target is foo.o, the dependent files are foo.cc, foo.hh, and bar.hh, and the rule is "g++ -c foo.cc". If any of foo.cc, foo.hh or bar.hh have been modified, or if the foo.o does not yet exist, issuing gmake foo.o will result in the recompilation of foo.cc in accordance with the rule. The default target is the first target listed in the
GNUmakefile. It is the rule that will be executed when gmake is invoked without an argument.
Sometimes targets are used to perform tasks not related to compiling and linking code. If you define a target for which there is no file of the same name, and the rule commands do not create the target file, then a file of the target name will not exist in the directory. Because the target does not have a corresponding file it is always considered out of date; the rules will be executed every time the target is made. These targets are referred to as phony targets. Phony targets do not usually have dependent files.
An example of a phony target is workdir's
The command gmake workdir.setup does not compile or link code.
Instead, it creates some links in workdir: PARENT, RELEASE, bin, and shlib.
GNUmakefile) for a given package knows about the dependences between all the files. If a given file is being compiled with a gmake command, any files that it depends upon and that are newer than it will also be compiled. Therefore, if file X is newer than file Y, but Y depends on X, recompiling Y will force a recompilation of X, and any other files that might have been edited since Y was last touched.
As such, to force a file to be recompiled, you may need to manually "touch" one of the relevant files. An example of such a command is:
touch BetaMiniUser/AppUserBuildBase.ccThis changes the time stamp on AppUserBuild.cc, so that gmake will identify it as a new file, and recompile it. In this case, this will cause almost the entire package to recompile as almost all the other files in the package depend on AppUserBuildBase.cc.
GNUmakefile. The link file is used by the
GNUmakefile. The use of this file is mainly for overriding previous definitions of linking rules defined by the test release's
GNUmakefile. This overriding mostly serves to append the new package directory to the linking list. More information on this can be found in the HOWTO package in HOWTO-dependency.